Volume 9, Issue 1, Autumn 2014, Page 1-98

Iraq’s inland Water quality and their impact on the North-Western Arabian Gulf

Bayan A. Mahdi; Nadia Al-Mudaffar Fawzi

Marsh Bulletin, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 1-22

This review examines the changes in water quality that have taken place in the main Iraqi rivers, the Tigris, Euphrates and the Shatt Al-Arab River over the past few decades; and in particular, the effects of a reduction in fresh water supply, the pollution of these waterways and the impact of these aspects on the north-western Arabian Gulf.
A change in the quantity and quality of water due to the effects of upstream damming has significantly reduced the water flow to Iraq. In addition, the water quality is continuing to deteriorate in the absence of adequate river basin management programs, the direct dumping of untreated domestic and municipal wastes, agricultural chemicals, and hazardous industrial substances into the waterways. Such conduct is exerting an immense impact with harmful effects on public health and the environment.
Major evidence so far of environmental stress is the increasing infringement of marine waters into the Shatt Al-Arab estuary and its tributaries, which is dramatically affecting agricultural activities and the livelihood of farmers residing in the area. This encroachment has introduced some marine species to what was a previously brackish water environment. Further evidence is the aesthetic presentation of the Shatt Al-Arab River and almost all its branches were rubbish including plastic bottles and bags, other solid wastes and sewerage directly disposed. Further studies of these issues are required to determine the short and long-term environmental impacts on both the marshes and the Arabian Gulf.

Distribution and sources of fatty acids in sediment cores from Al-Hammar marsh, southern Iraq

Hamid T. Al-Saad; Abass A. Hantoosh; Ali A. Douabul; Amina Ak. Al-Timari

Marsh Bulletin, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 23-37

The distribution and concentration of fatty acids in sediment cores from two stations , in the beginning (core 1) and in the end (core 2) at Hor Al-Hammar marshes Southern Iraq, were measured by high resolution capillary gas chromatography. Core was dated by employing Pb-210 method. Other relevant parameters were measured in core section including total organic carbon, C: N and carbonates in additional to grain size analysis. The sedimentation rate at the sampling station was found to be 0.7 cm/y. Thus the core sampled represents the period from 1960 to 1988.
The average concentration of fatty acids in core sections were ranged from 42.25 to 10.66 µg/g dry weight for core 1 and from 30.44 to 2.43 µg/g dry weight for core 2. Chromatography exhibit a bimodal distribution, with maximum at C16 and C26 a strong even to odd carbon number predominance, typical of biogenic source (phytoplankton, terrigenous plant wax and microbial sources).

Similarity and dissimilarity of macroinvertebrates, fishes and quatic birds species composition in three major marshes of southern Iraq

Sumaya M. Ahmed; Najah A. Hussain

Marsh Bulletin, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 38-48

Whittaker beta diversity formula was applied to detect similarity and dissimilarity of species composition of Macroinvertebrates, total number of fishes, native fish and aquatic birds species in three major southern Iraqi marshes (Al-Huwaiza, East and West Hammar ). The outcome results indicated that species dissimilarity increased in southern marshes, (i) Due to enlarge of land isolation between southwest and southeast marshes, (ii) Intrusion of exotic, alien and marine fishes and crustacean species,( iii ) Third escalation of water salinity and progressive effect of the Gulf tide. Moderate levels of species dissimilarity were obtained for mancroinvertebrates, total number of fishes and aquatic birds among West Hammar and Al-Huwaiza marshes, on contrary species similarity increased for macroinvertbrates groups and aquatic birds between East and West Hammar marshes. Migrating marine fish species cause moderate dissimilarity in total number of fish species between East Hammar and Al-Huwaiza (βw :1.357), while good similarity value for native fish species was recorded (βw :1.262) in East and West Hammar. Presence or absences of tidal muddy shores led to low dissimilarity (βw:1.321-1.329) in aquatic birds species existed in the three marshes. Gradual rise of species dissimilarity of southern marshes taxa seemed to be inevitable with the escalation of environmental degradation of southern Iraqi marshlands .

Assessment the potential of scale formation and the corrosivity of Al - Najebia thermal power plant cooling system water

Inas K. Mohammed

Marsh Bulletin, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 49-64

The aim of this research is to study the potential of scale formation and corrosivity of the water using in Al-Najebia power station cooling system in Basrah province, south Iraq.
water indices such as langelier saturation index, Ryznar stability index, Pukuriuos scaling index and Larson ratio have been used for predicting the corrosive, scale forming .
The study is based on the obtained corrosion and scale data for the period from Jan.2012 to Dec. 2012 , samples were collected from Al-Najebia Power Station cooling system water , the analytical results were used to calculate the indices, because of seasonal flucations in water characteristics, sampling was performed twice monthly.
The quantitative analytical methods were employed. All indices were calculated the mean values of langelier saturation index (-0.3317), Ryznar stability index mean value was (7.7833), Puckurius scaling index mean value was (6.216) while the mean value of Larson Ratio was (29.59) and preliminary results confirmed that the studied water has a tendency to corrosion and scale formation, also the results revealed that the indices were correlated with measured metal ions.

Spatial and Temporal distribution of fish eggs and larvae abundance at Shatt Al-Arab estuary in the northwest Arabian Gulf

Mutlak; F. M; M. T. K; Al-Okailee

Marsh Bulletin, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 79-87

Ichthyoplankton sampling was conducted at two stations in the northwestern part of Arabian Gulf (Shatt Al-Arab estuary A1 and Khor Abdulla A2), during June 2012 to May 2013. A total of 1426 fish eggs and 2118 fish larvae were collected using conical plankton net (mesh size 300µm). Three families (Sciaenidae, Soleidae and Clupeidae) of fish eggs and eight families (Gobiidae, Engreaulidae, Sciaenidae, Soleidae, Clupeidae, Polynemidae, Bothidae and Cynoglossidae) of fish larvae were identified. Sciaenid fish egg comprised 50.49% of all eggs collected and peak of abundance (45.2 egg/10m²) at station in June. Three fish families (Gobiidae, Engreaulidae and Clupeidae) comprised 85.5% of all larvae collected. Maximum abundance of gobiid larvae at station A1 in May (25.8 larvae/10m²), Engraulid larvae (48.3 larvae/10m²) at station A2 in May. Clupid larvae (20.4 larvae/10m²) at station A2 in June. Fish larvae abundance were significant positively correlated with surface temperature and surface salinity at both stations. This study showed the importance of northwestern part of Arabian Gulf as spawning sites and nursery for many fishes.

Morphological and histological study of eye development in embryos and larvae of common carp fish Cyprinus carpio(L.1758).

Ahmed Muhassin Moajer; Jassim Hameed Saleh; Zeyad abdulkadhim Mezyad

Marsh Bulletin, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 88-98

Growth and development of the eye in common carp fish were studied by using a several samples of the eggs, larvae and juveniles during artificial fertilization in the marine science center hatchery of fishes. Temperature of the Water in the incubators was 26C and the incubation of eggs was 38 hr. The study included the morphological and histological of the formation of the eye, optic primordial appeared after 12 of fertilization in a form evagination from both sides of the forebrain and slightly oval elongated and then characterized optic vesicle, then lens was appeared , it was spherical shape, histological the optic cup characterized at 24 and 28 hours of incubation is spherical and regular with the advent of the cornea lens and iris in addition to the room of the organization of the eye and the vitreous chamber. the retina was formed at the age of 24 hours of incubation from ganglion cell layer (Gcl)inner nuclear layer(Inl).And then followed by the other layers that fit their appearance with the age of the embryo, completed growth and the emergence of layers of the retina at the age of almost 30 days after hatching.